Articles

  • Printing and distribution of Resistance newspapers - July 2006

    So I stayed alone with all the equipment and all the load of newspapers to print, and from time to time I also used to take in people who were being chased, either by French police, or by the Gestapo and who came to ask me for asylum some nights. And as I was a young primary school teacher, and in the countryside everything is visible, I started to get a bad reputation, because when a man arrives at a young lady’s house in the evening and leaves the next morning, it’s rarely well looked upon! (...)

  • Work in the factories and life expectancy in Ravensbruck - July 2006

    Therefore, everyone did things according to their religion or what they wanted, and later we were taken on what is called "the march to slavery:" this means that we were gathered up outside and the German civilians arrived: these civilians were sent by large German firms for exanple, Siemens and Hugo Farben . Eventually all the large enterprises came to look for manual work because in fact at this time we were slaves and the German firms bought us .
    The firms paid so much per person and (...)

  • Liberation - July 2006

    So we, the survivors, after the death of Hitler, at the end of April, we had nothing more to eat and so we asked some of our Czech friends how long we could have left, because we were already very weak, because of the hard work regime that we had been submitted to, and the fact that they didn’t feed us enough, or should I say not at all.
    So she said to us "Listen, we have water, so we could have another two weeks, but no more." And after eight days the Americans arrived, and a small colony (...)

  • Writing articles and sources of information - July 2006

    We now have some matters to explain. So I was in contact with the Philosophy teacher from the High School in Dieppe, of the name Valentin Feldman. We had to write articles to be published.
    Both of us had a university training, and especially him. However our first attempts weren’t very successful, in that we wrote very long, logical, well documented articles - which we got wrong. This sort of underground article had to be very short, with big titles so that people could read them (...)

  • Arrest and Trial - June 2006

    I went to Le Havre to see my family over christmas and the new year of 1942 and there i met a collegue of mine (the person who had got me to join the resistance)who said to me "Listen you must return to Dieppe because some people have been arrested and we must know if the printing material is safe, who exactly has been arrested, why and by whom." In fact, i really didn’t feel like returning to Dieppe to find out this, but at the end of the day the acceptance of orders and discipline (...)

  • Printing and Distribution of Resistance Newspapers - June 2006

    So I stayed alone with all the equipment and all the load of newspapers to print, and from time to time I also used to take in people who were being chased, either by French police, or the Gestapo who came to ask me for asylum some nights. And as I was a young primary school teacher, and in the countryside everything is visible, I started to get a bad reputation, because when a man arrives at a young girls house in the evening and leaves the next morning, it’s rarely well looked upon! (...)

  • Daily life during the occupation and sources of discontent - June 2006

    The first repression of the Jews was from 1941, there was a huge rise in the cost of living, families found it difficult to keep up the supply, since we had ration books, i.e we couldn’t have bread, meat, milk or all the necessary things without having this book from which the seller tore out a coupon and gave just the amount that the law authorised. Besides this published in the official papers, today, with a D3 coupon you had the right to 25g of butter or to 50g of meat; they were very (...)

  • Conditions in the prison - June 2006

    So we believed that, but we were brought to the prison in Chalon sur Marne which is now called Chalon en Champagne. There it is a cellular prison, which means that normally the people should be separated; one per cell, but as the prison was already too small we were placed four per cell which meant there was scarcely room to live because its better to be 50 in a big room than four in a small space where it was painful to move. I had photos of elsewhere that were taken secretly in the cell (...)

  • The prison - June 2006

    So we recovered everyone, and qt the prison evidently, the overcrowding was very bad,very bad, and there wasa revolt at the prison.So this revolt, at the womens, it bwent fairly well, but at the mens it was worse bexause the germans had, for the women, had drawn in the, in the windows of some cells, and we had sheltered under the covers and under the mattresses not to have some fragments of... or the richoches of bullets, while at the mens, the...the punish,ent was harsher since the germans (...)

  • Conditions in Prison - June 2006

    We started to get to know each other and we started to get into groups. In little groups we shared the parcels we could receive, because some people received them and others didn’t. We spent 1942 like this, which was a terrible year because lots of people were shot and there were many amongst us who received news that their husbands, brothers, even their sons, had been shot. But we didn’t lose hope, we encouraged each other despite the suffering we endured. You can see how we were dressed in (...)

  • The "Front National" and organisation of the resistance. - April 2006

    So I did this job and here in this book is a photo of one of the newspapers that you will see soon when you pass the table that I printed myself and then tried to widen our movement in Dieppe and the region, this was called the "Front National" but it is not the Front National of Le Pen at the moment , it was the "Front National" for the freedom of France and we called for all the people who wanted to take part in the resistance to join those, us, who were already a little group but of (...)

  • conditions in ravensbruck - March 2006

    Ravensbruck is at the north of Berlin near the Polish border, near there is a big port, we were there in Mecklenbourg which we called, in a place which is so welcoming that it is called "little Siberia." So the camp was in the middle of marshland and was a very big camp because, when we arrived, in the camp there were 50 000 women, 50 000, of all nationalities, of all ages, and there were children and we were stuffed into barracks. We were put into quarantine, that’s to say we were isolated (...)

  • Her first involvement in the Resistance - March 2006

    Then I said that "Yes" it was OK, all the more so since my mother’s younger brother had found means to return to Canada, where he had lived for some time and immediatly got involved in the "France Libre" ; obviously for a young girl of 19 it would have been difficult to leave France at the time of the arrival of the Germans but all the same some people had to stay there and tried to do something.
    So I received a visit from a teaching collegue who was old enough to hqve been my father who (...)

  • Une jeune institutrice à Avremesnil - Mars 2006

    Une jeune institutrice à Avremesnil
    "Je suis née au Havre et j’ai fait mes études au Havre,et ensuite à Rouen pour être institutrice et en 1940 , c’est à dire déjà pendant la guerre,j’ai été nommée institutrice au Havre, mais je n’ai jamais pu occuper la classe où je devais faire mon travail parce que la classe était occupée par l’armée allemande donc je suis restée chez moi pendant deux mois en attendant qu’on me désigne un autre poste et je suis allée , sur l’ordre de l’académie de Rouen, à Avremesnil, qui (...)